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¿Quién puede comulgar?

¿Quién puede comulgar? … ¿Es necesario confesarse para comulgar?
Y depende… Quien va a tomar la primera Comunión debe confesarse antes de hacerlo. Quien ha cometido un pecado mortal, también debe hacerlo, para recuperar la gracia antes de comulgar. Quien está en estado de gracia no necesita hacerlo.

Premisa
“Quien come mi carne y bebe mi sangre tiene vida eterna”. Se recibe al mismo Cristo.
Es necesario hacerlo con dignidad.

Dos condiciones
La Comunión no es un premio. No se precisa ser santo para comulgar. Es una necesidad espiritual, pero tiene unos requerimientos básicos.
Las dos primeras condiciones son de origen divino, surgen de la realidad de la Eucaristía y están consignadas en la Sagrada Escritura:

1) estado de gracia;

2) saber a quien se recibe.

Dice San Pable en I Corintios 11, 27-29:
“Quien coma el pan o beba la copa del Señor indignamente, será reo del
Cuerpo y de la Sangre del Señor. Examínese, pues, cada cual, y coma así
el pan y beba de la copa. Pues quien come y bebe sin discernir el
Cuerpo, come y bebe su propio castigo.”

Es necesario distinguir -saber a quién se recibe- y estar en estado de amistad con Dios. La Teología lo llama “estar en estado de gracia”. Se pierde por el pecado mortal, que rompe la comunión de vida con Dios. Se recupera en el sacramento de la Penitencia.

Respecto a la confesión y la Eucaristía, la Iglesia concretó explícitamente dos preceptos:
• antes de la Primera Comunión es necesario confesarse.
• si se ha cometido un pecado grave, es necesario confesarse antes de comulgar.

¿Conveniente o necesario?
Salvo los dos casos señalados no es necesario confesarse antes de comulgar. Si una persona está en gracia, aunque haga mucho tiempo que no se confiesa, puede comulgar con toda tranquilidad. No debemos añadir más condiciones que las que realmente existen. La confesión frecuente es una práctica muy recomendable para el crecimiento espiritual, tener el alma más purificada, etc. Pero esto es otra cuestión. Una cosa es la conveniencia de la confesión frecuente y otra distinta que sea necesidad para recibir la comunión si uno está en gracia (que no lo es).

Hasta aquí todo resulta bastante claro.

¿Donde surge el problema?

En que una persona en estado de pecado mortal puede recuperar la gracia de Dios incluso antes de confesarse.

¿Cómo es eso? Haciendo un acto de contrición perfecta con el propósito de confesar cuanto antes se pueda, se recupera la gracia perdida.

¿Qué es un acto de contrición perfecta?
Es un acto de arrepentimiento del pecado cometido, movido por amor de Dios. Dolor de haber ofendido a Dios, tan santo, digno de amor, grande, bueno, etc.
¿Qué es un acto de contrición imperfecta?
Es el mismo acto, realizado por motivos sobrenaturales, muy buenos todos, pero que no son el amor de Dios: miedo al infierno, fealdad del pecado, deseos de comulgar, peso de la conciencia, etc.

El dolor de la contrición imperfecta es suficiente para recibir el perdón de los pecados en la confesión. Si al dolor de la contrición perfecta se le une el propósito de confesar, se obtiene la gracia -podríamos decir- por adelantado, antes de la confesión.

Entonces, ¿puedo comulgar después de cometer un pecado mortal, antes de confesarme, si hago un acto de contrición perfecto?
– No
– ¿Y por qué no?
Los sacramentos dignamente recibidos dan la certeza de acceder a la gracia de Dios. Actúan “ex opere operato” según explica la Teología: en virtud -por eficacia- de lo actuado que no falla. Si no pongo un obstáculo a su acción, la realiza eficazmente.
En cambio cuando hago un acto de contrición perfecta, estoy en un ámbito no sacramental, en el cual dependo de -por decirlo de alguna manera- la “calidad” de mi acción. No tengo certeza de haber hecho realmente un acto de contrición perfecta. No tengo cómo medir la perfección/imperfección de mi acto de contrición.
Si comulgara así me podría exponer a recibir al Señor indignamente, y cometer así un sacrilegio. El problema no es sólo mi pecado, es problema sobretodo es el respeto que Dios merece: no puedo exponer la Eucaristía a semejante afrenta. Sin necesidad no sería lógico correr ambos riesgos.

Por esto la Iglesia, para cuidar la dignidad del Sacramento y el alma de los fieles, impuso un precepto en el Concilio de Trento: que nadie con conciencia de haber cometido un pecado mortal se acercara a comulgar, por muy contrito que se sienta, sin haberse confesado antes.
Es decir, que hay una ley de la Iglesia que lo manda.

¿Tiene excepciones?
Sí, porque los preceptos eclesiásticos no obligan cuando hay una dificultad grave.
El precepto divino no tiene excepción: no se puede comulgar en estado de pecado.
El precepto eclesiástico puede tenerla: se podría comulgar en el estado de gracia obtenido mediante un acto de contrición perfecta aún antes de confesarse, si hubiera alguna dificultad grave. En este caso, una grave necesidad de Comulgar.
Es decir, que si una persona tiene obligación de comulgar y no puede confesarse, puede hacer un acto de perfecta contrición y comulgar.
Un ejemplo: el sacerdote debe celebrar los sacramentos en estado de gracia. Si no lo estuviera cometería un sacrilegio. Además, cuando celebra Misa no puede no comulgar (la comunión del sacerdote forma parte de la ceremonia). Si, en un pueblo, el sacerdote estuviera en estado de pecado mortal, no tuviera con quien confesarse, y debiera celebrar la Misa para el pueblo, ¿qué tendría que hacer? Ese sacerdote debe hacer un acto de contrición perfecta y celebrar la Santa Misa.
Otro ejemplo: si omitir la comunión procurara un grave escándalo o infamia. Es el caso de una persona está en la cola para comulgar y de repente recuerda estar en pecado mortal (no lo sabía antes). Si no puede alejarse sin llamar gravemente la atención de los demás, puede comulgar haciendo un acto de perfecta contrición. Obviamente no es el caso de quien no quiere confesarse, sino de quien, de buena fe, se encuentra en esa situación.

Obviamente sin una necesidad real, y una dificultad grave también real, sería un grave abuso el incumplimiento de este precepto de la Iglesia, cuyo fin no es impedir a la gente la comunión, sino conseguir que lo haga dignamente, evitando todo peligro de sacrilegio. Sería absurdo exponerse a cometer un sacrilegio, para satisfacer las ganas de comulgar, o para evitar la vergüenza de dejar de hacerlo, o por la “necesidad” de recibir al Señor, etc., sin una necesidad grave de recibir la Eucaristía. De hecho, casi nunca hay obligación de comulgar (es el caso del sacerdote que celebra y algún otro caso excepcional).

¿Y si el sacerdote me deja?
A veces se escucha decir: “Pero, un sacerdote me dijo que comulgara…”.
Entonces nos preguntamos, ¿puede un sacerdote eximir del cumplimiento de esta ley? No, porque no tiene ninguna potestad sobre ella. Si te lo dijo, se equivocó, no tendría que habértelo dicho. Hay cosas para las que se tiene poder, y cosas para las que no. Si no tengo poder de hacer algo, e intento hacerlo, el intento es vano, ya que lo hecho no tendrá ninguna validez. Sería como si un diácono quisiera consagrar: por mejor voluntad que le pusiera nunca conseguiría que el pan se convierta en el Cuerpo de Cristo, porque no tiene el poder de hacerlo.
Si un sacerdote da permiso para hacer algo, en lo que no tiene potestad, el permiso es absolutamente inválido. Además un mal consejo no te excusa de pecado.
Por tanto, no pierdas el tiempo pidiendo permiso para comulgar: estar en condiciones de comulgar o no estarlo no depende del sacerdote que tengas delante.
Por otro lado, salvo el caso de personas que viven en situaciones irregulares, la solución es muy sencilla: acudir a confesarse.

¿Para qué ir a Misa si no puedo Comulgar?
Para ofrecer a Dios el sacrificio redentor de Cristo. Es cierto que la Iglesia recomienda -para una participación más plena- que aquellos que están en condiciones de hacerlo, comulguen. Pero esto no quita que se pueda participar activamente en la Misa sin comulgar. Son dos cuestiones distintas. Y la comunión siempre presupone las debidas disposiciones, sin las cuales, haría daño, mucho daño al alma de quien comulga.
Además en el caso de la misa dominical, no asistir a Misa añadiría otro pecado mortal a la persona. El cumplimiento del precepto dominical es absolutamente independiente de la Comunión: se lo cumple con la asistencia a Misa y punto.

La insistencia de la Iglesia
La Iglesia ha insistido tanto en este tema en documentos recientes que resulta realmente doloroso que haya quienes propongan una práctica contraria a esta enseñanza.

Lo que la Iglesia enseña y quiere está clarísimo para quien sepa leer y quiera obedecer.
Le pediría a quien difunda lo contrario, que tenga al menos la honestidad de decir a los fieles que no es eso lo que la Iglesia sostiene. De lo contrario estaría engañándolos en su buena fe.
Decirle a un fiel: “comulgá y después te confieso” (salvo los casos excepcionales de necesidad grave de comulgar) es descabellado, significa tanto como decirle: “cometé un sacrilegio y después te confieso”. No, mejor no cometas el sacrilegio.

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