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PROCESO PARA EL CÓNCLAVE

SEDE VACANTE.


A las 19h00 GMT, la hora fijada para la renuncia, se abrió el periodo llamado de «sede vacante», es decir de trono vacante, a partir del cual dejaron sus funciones todos los jefes de los dicasterios (los ‘ministerios’) de la Curia Romana, el gobierno de la Iglesia. El viernes, el Vaticano imprimirá un sello especial utilizado durante la sede vacante.

El CAMARLENGO, LÍDER TEMPORAL DE LA IGLESIA.

El camarlengo (administrador de la propiedad y las rentas del Vaticano) será temporalmente el máximo responsable de la Iglesia durante el interregno. El papa Benedicto XVI nombró en 2007 para ese cargo al número dos del Vaticano, el cardenal italiano Tarcisio Bertone.

CARTA PARA CONVOCAR A LOS CARDENALES.

Angelo Sodano, decano del Colegio Cardenalicio (también llamado «sacro colegio»), enviará el viernes cartas a todos los cardenales (tengan o no derecho a voto) para convocar las llamadas «congregaciones generales» , donde se empieza a discutir el nombramiento del nuevo papa.

PARTICIPANTES Y DURACIÓN DEL CÓNCLAVE.

El cónclave (del latín «cum clave»: «bajo llave») es la reunión a puertas cerradas de 115 cardenales «electores», aunque el número podría variar. En 1970, el papa Pablo VI fijó en 80 años la edad límite para tener derecho a voto. La duración del cónclave no está fijada de antemano.

EL ANILLO DEL PESCADOR.

El anillo del pescador es un anillo de oro macizo que llevan todos los papas con su nombre grabado en latín y que en la antigüedad servía para sellar documentos. El Vaticano indicó que cuando empiece la primera reunión de cardenales el anverso del anillo, que sirve como sello, será alisado para impedir falsificaciones. La operación será llevada a cabo por el cardenal Bertone. El camarlengo también será el encargado de colocar el anillo en el dedo al próximo Papa.

LA FECHA DEL CÓNCLAVE.

Durante las congregaciones, los cardenales también deciden la fecha del cónclave. La constitución apostólica ‘Universi Dominici Gregis’, promulgada el 22 de febrero de 1996 por Juan Pablo II, fijaba un plazo de 15 a 20 días desde la declaración de la «sede vacante» para el inicio de esa asamblea de purpurados. Pero antes de renunciar, Benedicto XVI publicó un decreto («motu proprio») que permite anticipar la fecha «si los cardenales están presentes» en Roma.

SISTEMA DE ELECCIÓN.

La elección se lleva a cabo en la Capilla Sixtina, dentro del palacio apostólico del Vaticano. Se necesita una mayoría de dos tercios para nombrar al nuevo papa. La votación se hace con papeletas que se ponen dentro de un cáliz.

HUMO BLANCO, HUMO NEGRO.

Durante el cónclave se vota dos veces por la mañana y dos veces por la tarde. Tras cada votación, las papeletas se queman en una estufa especialmente en la Capilla y que tiene salida al exterior. Si no se alcanza un acuerdo, se añaden productos químicos (en la antigüedad era paja húmeda) para que el humo sea negro. Si el resultado es positivo, se queman las papeletas, lo que provoca el humo blanco que anuncia la elección del nuevo Papa. En ese momento la gran campana de la Basílica de San Pedro empieza a redoblar.

DOS PREGUNTAS PARA EL NUEVO PAPA.

Una vez elegido, el nuevo Papa responde a dos preguntas. «¿Acepta su elección canónica como Soberano Pontífice?» y «¿Con que qué nombre quiere ser llamado?». Si responde positivamente a la primera pregunta, el elegido se convierte en Papa y arzobispo de Roma.

Luego pasa a una habitación anexa, llamada «Sala de las lágrimas» porque muchos pontífices lloraron en ella al tomar conciencia de la importancia del cargo. El nuevo Papa se pone entonces una de las tres sotanas blancas (de tallas distintas) preparadas por el sastre oficial del Vaticano.

El «protodiácono» (el cardenal más veterano, actualmente el francés Jean-Louis Tauran) anuncia entonces la noticia desde el balcón de la Basílica de San Pedro, con la fórmula en latín «habemus papam («tenemos Papa»), revela el nombre del nuevo pontífice e imparte la bendición «Urbi et orbi» («a la ciudad y al mundo»).

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