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HORAS CANÓNICAS

Las horas canónicas son una división del tiempo empleada durante la Edad Media en la mayoría de las regiones cristianas de Europa, y que seguía el ritmo de los rezos de los religiosos de los monasterios. Cada una de las horas indica una parte del Oficio divino (hoy denominado liturgia de las horas) es decir el conjunto de oraciones pertinente a esa parte del día.

La división del día en siete partes tiene su origen en el Libro de los Salmos de la Biblia, en el que se lee: «Siete veces al día te alabaré», y también se lee «a medianoche me levantaba para darte gracias». De ahí se puede ver que existe una agrupación de las siete horas canónicas de los Ofícios diurnos, y así mismo los Ofícios nocturnos, que a su vez se reparten en tres guardias o vigílias, denominadas Maitines. Cada semana los monjes debían rezar el salterio íntegro (es decir los 150 salmos). En su regla, San Benito recomienda a sus monjes que durante los viajes no dejen pasar el rezo las horas de oración.

San Benito denominó a estas horas de rezo «horas canónicas», y así se haría desde el siglo VI; su nombre proviene de las órdenes y normas o cánones de la Iglesia del medioevo. Durante esa época se organizó el sistema de horas centralizando su uso principalmente en los monasterios benedictinos.

NUMERO Y CUALIDAD DE LAS HORAS.

Las horas canónicas eran las siguientes:

• Maitines: medianoche
• Laudes: al amanecer, habitualmente sobre las 3:00
• Prima: Hora en la que sale el sol, aproximadamente las 6:00 de la mañana
• Tercia: Tercera hora después de salir el sol, las 9:00
• Sexta: mediodía, a las 12:00
• Nona: sobre las 15:00
• Vísperas: tras la puesta de sol, habitualmente sobre las 18:00
• Completas: antes del descanso nocturno, las 21:00

DIVISIONES:

Las horas se pueden dividir a su vez en dos categorías atendiendo a su carácter de Oficio:

• Horas mayores es decir los Maitines, las Laudes y las Vísperas, en las que era preceptivo que toda la comunidad se reuniera en la iglesia.

• Horas menores que corresponden a la Prima, la Tercia, la Sexta y la Nona. Según la regla benedictina no era obligación en estas horas menores acudir a la iglesia, sino que, al escuchar la trompeta o campana los monjes interrumpían sus labores y se ponían a orar inmediatamente en el lugar en el que se encontraban.

Existe otra división de las horas canónicas según la parte del día a la que correspondan o nocturnas. Se consideraban horas diurnaslas de Prima, Tercia, Sexta y Nona, y nocturnas las demás.

 

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